When playing lawn bowls, two closely-related factors are paramount, namely line and length. Most bowlers would agree that getting the length right is the more difficult task.


Which Weight to Bowl?

How much force you place behind your shot determines how far down the green your bowl will go. For a short jack, you need less weight than for a longer jack, assuming that your aim is to “draw”, by which is meant to get your bowl to the same (or thereabouts) position on the green as the jack (or some other target).

Giving more weight to the shot means that the bias of the bowl will start to take effect further down the green as the bowl slows down. When it start

s slowly from your hand, the bias will take effect almost immediately, which is why you always need to give plenty of “green” when bowling to a short jack.

Playing A Firing Shot

This sounds violent, and often is! The object of firing is (usually) to hit opponents’ bowls with sufficient force to move them far enough away from the jack that they can no longer count in the score. It is therefore a tactic used as a last resort to break the opposition’s stranglehold on an end, generally when they hold several shots, all of which need to be removed.

Firing is a skill that many skips think they possess but do not! In most games played by amateur bowlers, the firing success rate is remarkably low, although that does not stop some skips from hurling their woods down the green with such force that they either thud against the back of the ditch like rifle shots or send bowls off in all directions, including neighbouring rinks. There is also a serious risk to the ankles of anyone standing (literally) in the firing line!

The trick of firing is to be in control, and to be confident that you can send a bowl in a straight line with force. For most players, the action of using weight disturbs the line, and bowls go off in the wrong direction. One problem is that firing is not something that most bowlers practice, and if you are only going to fire a few times during a match, the chances of getting it right on those few occasions are therefore lessened.

Controlled Weight

It is often necessary to move a bowl, or the jack, and to do this the bowl being sent must have enough force to do the job when it reaches the target. However, the need may be to move a short bowl a few feet closer to the jack, or to push the jack towards other bowls that are lying further back. For this to happen, controlled weight is required.

Sending a bowl with controlled weight is one of the more difficult shots to play, because the weight must be neither too great nor too little, and the bias of the bowl must also be taken into account. Although the shot is not a draw, it is not a firing shot either, so there will be at least some bend to allow for.

Another consideration must always be what happens if the shot misses its target? Could a bad situation be made worse because a weighted shot was chosen?

Reading the Green

Whatever type of shot is to be played, with the possible exception of the outright fire, the condition of the green will have a considerable effect on the weight that needs to be applied.

Some greens are naturally faster than others, meaning that, for the same degree of effort, a bowl will run further on a faster green than a slower one. However, factors such as the length of grass on a green will affect the speed, as will the dryness or dampness of the surface. If the green has been poorly maintained there may be bare patches where the speed is faster than in other places.

The speed can change during the course of a match, caused by the sun or wind having a drying effect after a shower, or a sudden shower having the opposite effect. As the players walk up and down the green they will tend to flatten the grass and add speed to the green. However, where the players have not walked, and where most bowls have not run, the green may offer a slower speed.

All these factors, and the changing circumstances of a game of bowls, add many complications to the task of sending the perfect bowl. This is why bowls is such a fascinating game; learning how to play is not difficult, but getting it right every time most certainly is!

Obesity is a complex problem with biological, social, and psychological causes. The control of food intake (how much you eat and how much it takes for you to feel full) and food metabolism (how you convert food to energy) appears to be regulated, at least in part, by a system of hormones produced by cells of the nervous system. The interaction between these “neurohormones” is currently the subject of intense study and compounds that affect these hormones are the focus of a billion dollar diet drug industry.

It might not surprise you that the actions of hormones produced in the brain contribute to obesity, but another link to obesity may surprise you, since the source isn’t human. It’s a virus called adenovirus-36 or “Ad-36.” Ad-36 is a member of a family of about 50 DNA viruses that are associated with some very familiar illnesses ranging from the common cold to pink eye.

As early as 1997, Dr. Nihil V. Dhurandhar reported that 10 of 52 obese subjects he screened while at the University of Bombay had antibodies against a type of bird adenovirus, SMAM-1. Dhurandhar and colleagues in the U.S. later investigated human adenovirus strains. They found that approximately 30% of the obese people in their study had been infected with the Ad-36 virus compared to 11% of non-obese people.

To see if the virus has a causal connection to obesity, researchers have taken the virus and experimentally infected monkeys with it. The result? The infected monkeys gained significant weight. Surprisingly, serum cholesterol was lowered in these animals.

While these studies suggest a link between the Ad-36 virus and obesity, questions remain – like how does the virus contribute to obesity? In a recent study, scientists at Louisiana State University took samples of tissue from individuals who had liposuction and removed adult stem cells from the samples. Stem cells are cells that have the potential to turn into more specialized cells. When infected by the Ad-36 virus, greater than 50% of the cells turned into fat cells, while only a small number of non-infected cells turned into fat cells. The virus-infected fat cells were also bigger than typical fat cells, seemingly capable of storing more fat.


Because the causes of obesity are complex, no one treatment method may be a cure-all. However, interesting avenues of research identified by the Louisiana State study include the possibility of creating vaccines or drugs that target particular genes of the adenoviruses linked to obesity. Understanding the reason why some people infected with Ad-36 aren’t obese and why Ad-36 infection is associated with lower cholesterol may be just as interesting.

Heart disease affects nearly 30% of the U.S. population. A major contributor to heart disease is high cholesterol, occurring in nearly 100 million Americans. In addition to cholesterol-lowering drugs, treatment includes decreasing total intake of fats, saturated fats and cholesterol. However, several clinical trials show that a diet low in saturated fats and high in unsaturated fats may be more effective than reducing total fat intake.

Nut consumption has been looked down upon by the healthcare industry due to the caloric and fat content. Growing epidemiological evidence is slowly changing this negative image. Nuts are rich in the following:

  • plant proteins
  • phytosterols
  • unsaturated fats
  • fiber
  • minerals (copper, magnesium, potassium)
  • vitamins (folic acid, niacin, vitamin E and B6)

FDA Recommends Eating Nuts to Reduce Risk of Heart Disease


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued a health claim stating that eating 1.5 oz/day of specific nuts may reduce heart disease risk. The specific nuts identified include:


  • almonds
  • hazelnuts
  • pecans
  • pistachios
  • walnuts
  • peanuts

A large body of evidence has demonstrated the protective effects of eating nuts. One study found that eating 1.5 oz of walnuts six days a week significantly reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and total cholesterol, decreasing risk of heart disease by approximately 18.6%. Another study showed pistachios can significantly increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol while decreasing total cholesterol and LDL. Pistachios contain ß-sitosterol, which is a phytosterol known to decrease cholesterol. Additionally, pistachios contain a large amount of arginine, which seems to relax blood vessels by increasing nitric oxide (NO) levels.

Nuts Help Reduce Heart Disease Risk in Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is known to drastically increase heart disease risk. One study focused on heart disease risk in women with type 2 diabetes who consumed nuts. The study looked at thousands of women between the years of 1980 and 2002. The results showed that eating at least five servings a week of nuts and peanut butter significantly lowered heart disease risk and heart attacks by up to 44% among women with type 2 diabetes. Of course, weight gain is always a concern, especially in diabetes. Fortunately, research has shown that eating nuts has no significant effect on weight.

Recently, a review of 25 studies focusing on the effects of nuts in cholesterol levels was completed. Total cholesterol and LDL were reduced, with no effect on HDL. Additionally, nuts decreased triglycerides in people with hypertriglyceridemia. However, the cholesterol-lowering effects were greater in people who started the study with higher LDL levels and those with a lower body mass index (BMI). Typically, intestinal absorption of cholesterol is reduced in obesity. Plant sterols in nuts work by reducing intestinal cholesterol absorption, dampening the cholesterol-lowering effects of nuts in obesity.

Nuts are slowly being recognized as a protective factor in heart disease. While studies tend to be small, mounting evidence suggest nuts may be advantageous when added onto traditional cholesterol therapies. Always speak with a doctor and pharmacist prior to starting or stopping any dietary or drug regimen.

Regular and sustained use of infrared saunas can have significant effects on overall weight loss and can burn up to 600 calories in a 30 minute session.

Burn Calories with Infrared Sauna Therapy

Infrared Sauna therapy is a system of inducing your body to sweat excessively due to high temperatures. The sweating can even be more than what you would get from working out with the best weight vest. Sweating takes away toxic substances from your body and the burning of extra calories can generate remarkable loss of body weight over fewer sessions when compared to traditional forms of sauna.   Sweating is a normal cooling process of the human body and it refreshes you to perspire and let off your sweat.  At the same time your body is working hard and it actually requires significant amounts of energy to produce such high levels of sweat and perspiration.

Infrared Saunas promote weight loss through sweating

Sweating is a complex process involving many thermoregulatory processes. These processes increase your heart rate, metabolic rates and cardiac outputs. Blood vessels expand to allow greater flow of hot blood from interior parts to body to exterior parts near the skin surfaces to cool down. This total process needs lots of energy. Every gram of sweat requires 0.586 kcal for formation and excretion.

Infrared sauna helps in losing body weight in three main ways:

Burning of calories

When you read infrared sauna reviews, you will realize a sauna causes lot of perspiration and you lose large quantities of water from your body as you sweat.  Normally, you lose around a quart of water during a twenty-minute sauna session. Intake of water by drinking fresh juices or water before, during and after sauna sessions can replenish water levels in the body.  Sweating leads to increase in heart activity as the heart has to pump extra blood at greater force into capillaries and arteries to maintain and regulate blood circulation. Such increased increases cardiovascular activity increases your heartbeat rate and consumes stored energy obtained from burning more fats and carbohydrates.  A short twenty-minute sauna session can help burn close to 600 calories contributing to significant weight loss if maintained on a regular basis.

Reduction of metallic and toxic deposits

Dry infrared saunas are most effective in removing toxic metals and their deposits from the human body. While inhaling air, you inhale many metals, which form deposits in your body. The kidney excretes some of these toxic substances. Metallic deposits of lead, nickel, mercury, sulfuric acid, sodium, cadmium and cholesterol can cause irregularities in metabolic functions. These irregularities lead to defective digestive processes and can resultant gain in weight and other health ailments.  Regular and excessive sweating over sustained periods can help to eliminate some of these deposits over time.

Removal of lipophilic toxins

Some body toxins are stored as fatty deposits. Such deposits need elimination and excretion from your body. These fats become water soluble only in high temperatures like 110°F. Hence, high temperatures of infrared sauna induce these fats to dissolve in water and come out with other toxic substances and heavy metal as sweat.

Infrared Sauna heat is comfortable

Infrared saunas provide a higher weight loss than regular saunas as they heat up the inner parts of body and cause the body’s temperature to rise. Regular saunas need to heat up the environment too, whereas the infrared sauna does not.  Sweating in dry saunas has additional benefits besides weight loss. It energizes other metabolic processes of vital body organs and restricts growth of bacteria and viruses.

Creation of hyperthermic situation in the body kills germs and enhances the immune system by increasing the number of white blood cells in the blood. It strengthens muscles and tissue and provides greater relief from sprains and pain. Cardiovascular conditions improve with sharp falls in diastolic blood pressure. Infrared sauna relaxes the total body and generates a feeling of overall well-being. You feel young, fresh, light and rejuvenated.


End of tenancy cleaning have actually shown to be among the several purchases that a person will make when they are searching for cleaning services to beautify their home. Nonetheless, cleaning your home will give you the ability to include some innovative design to your home. Although a messy can dramatically enhance the look of your home, it may be a difficult task to prevent it. As a result of this, numerous successful end of tenancy cleaning providers have made it feasible for you to preserve the perfect home for many years. So exactly what is Spring Cleaning TW all about?

There are a variety of companies around nowadays, but Spring Cleaning TW most definitely stands apart as one of best. This is really the only carrier that is providing a one year supplier’s guarantee on cleaning company and this is saying a whole lot because it shows that they are very certain in their expertise. Among the advantages of using these services is that your home will be perfect after it is being cleaned. These folks make use of a 5 stage procedure to make sure that your residence is clean and devoid of smell.


Whenever Spring Cleaning TW company is gotten in touch with your to do list, a professional will certainly get to your home in order to encourage you concerning the procedure. At this point, you will acquire information regarding the actions that would be required to tidy spots, hefty soiling and animal odors, along with how the house will be cleaned.

Moving the furniture

If you are going to clean your carpets, all movable furnishings inside the house will certainly be positioned in much safer locations to make certain that the places are cleaned completely. Even though the specialists will move the majority of your furniture, the ones with fragile objects will continue to be in their designated spot. On top of that, the electronic tools and massive furniture will also stay in area.

Cleaning areas

This firm uses special options which can do away with the most difficult cleaning jobs and smells. These places are going to be attended to before the cleansing process starts.


The professionals will make use of powerful vacuums. The power of this cleaner will certainly suction all the dust along with pet hairs which could be stuck on the carpet or furniture fibers.


As soon as everything is perfectly vacuumed, the firm will start cleaning the messy kitchen or bathroom. This process will bring back the life in your home and it will look as brand new. Spring Cleaning TW is certainly worth thinking about.

Biltong is our famous and most delicious South African tradition and is one of those things that everyone has their own opinion of. Some like it wet and fatty, others prefer it to have lots of pepper and coriander whereas some like it dry and lean and some rather just have it at a much tantalizing spiciness. Creating your very own home made biltong has become a very popular amongst those meaty lovers. Once prepared biltong is the perfect banting breakfast especially if you are short on time.


There are some added benefits when it comes to making your very own biltong.

You will be saving loads of money as biltong is very expensive if bought at your local biltong shop.

Making your own biltong you will be catering to your very own enjoyment.

The texture of the biltong is left to your own likes. Making biltong may be an easy task but there is much needed attention that goes into making that mouth-wateringly delicious biltong.

To begin with you would need to invest in a good biltong maker the reason for this is simply because a biltong maker dries the meat quickly and most important the process you are undertaking is prepared in a very hygienic manner.

Biltong can be made from if the type of meat but remembers if the grade of meat is good then you will get even better biltong. The spicing of meat is left entirely up to you taste buds, either meat can be soaked in brine or dry spices can be used.

The slicing of biltong

The most important part is the slicing of the biltong, especially if you using a biltong maker. As biltong makers are designed for hanging thinly sliced pieces of meat. Note if the meat is very thick the drying process takes up more time. Always use a sharp carving knife when slicing the meat.

The drying process of biltong

Never hand dripping and wet meat because it will attract flies.

It is in your best interest to use the hooks to hang meat that comes with your biltong maker.


The thickest part of meat should always be situated on the top when drying out meat.

Never let the meat to touch side of the machine and the meat should not touch each other.

Make sure the cover of the biltong maker is always fitted back after you hang up meat to avoid flies and insects settling on the drying meat.

Storage of biltong

When your biltong is ready make sure it is consumed within a week as you will be getting the best benefit of you homemade biltong in terms of taste and texture.

Biltong can be stored in a refrigerator.

When biltong is ready you can leave it in the machine or if you prefer to keep biltong for long periods of time the store in an airtight freezer bag and you can freeze your biltong for up to three months.

Take note

Very important that you are aware of flies, as they contaminate meat.

And there we have it. Its best to prepare biltong in bulk so you can have a unlimited supply of banting diet meals.








melanotan 2

There has been a lot of talk in our premises about this new drug that supposedly gives you a natural tan with the use of a Nasal Spray. I dug a little deeper into the product and this is what I found.

Melanotan 2 is that the newer analog of alpha epidermal cell stimulating endocrine (a-MSH) that’s naturally made by your endocrine gland. it’s ready to exert a bunch of helpful effects starting from skin pigmentation, hair pigmentation, craving suppression, higher concupiscence and arousal. What makes it totally different from melanotan I is that the proven fact that it’s ready to stimulate arousal and concupiscence. If you’re curious about buying melanotan 2 for private use, you’ve got come back to the correct place as we’ll be discussing all regarding melanotan 2 during this journal article.



How will melanotan 2 work?

To find out how is work a contacted MelanotanZA about their melanotan 2 and this is what they came up with.

“Melanotan 2 works equally as melanotan I in promoting skin pigmentation. It mimics the tanning method through a series of photoprotective acctions and skin epidermal cell activation. It helps the skin turn out black or brown pigmentation called eumelamin – a protecting style of pigment rather than pheomelamin or the red and generally yellow non-protective style of skin pigment. Eumelamin pigmentation provides photo protective properties to the skin against the harmful ultraviolet rays.

On the opposite hand, it’s ready to facilitate treat sexual dysfunctions, significantly ED in males through influencing some specific activities of the brain. Note but that melanotan 2 is in a position to push this result thanks to its short amino compounds sequence. It conjointly has larger ability to bind at totally different receptors enabling it to activate arousal amongst its users. newer clinical trials have shown that it can even be effective in treating sexual dysfunctions in feminine.”

Pretty Cool Deep Lasting Natural Tan

Melanotan 2 is in a position to produce you with a deep, lasting tan that might last for some months when continuous administration as compared to naturally non inheritable tans. Moreover, it permits flexibility of use. you’ll prefer to administer a dose once each few weeks to keep up the specified tan.